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NAM Non-Aligned Movement 60th Anniversary

NAM Non-Aligned Movement 60th Anniversary

The Non-Aligned Movement NAM is a forum of 120 developing world countries that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states worldwide.


The movement originated in the 1950s as an effort by some countries to avoid the polarized world of the Cold War between the pro Soviet communist countries belonging to the Warsaw Pact, and the pro-American capitalist countries belonging to NATO.


Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, the Non-Aligned Movement was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia through an initiative of the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah and Indonesian President Sukarno.


This led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Governments of Non-Aligned Countries.

The term non-aligned movement first appears in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as "members of the movement".


The purpose of the organization was enumerated by Fidel Castro in his Havana Declaration of 1979 as to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics.


"The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, although the Non-Aligned Movement also has a number of developed nations.


Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were actually quite closely aligned with China or the Soviet Union, the movement still persisted throughout the Cold War, even despite several conflicts between members which also threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end in 1991, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world, especially those within the Global South.


A chair is elected at each summit meeting. The Coordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups. Some of the chairmen were: Josip Broz Tito, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Fidel Castro, Thabo Mbeki, Nelson Mandela, Fidel Castro, Kenneth Kaunda, Houari Boumediène, William Gopallawa, Hosni Mubarak, Ilham Aliyev, Hassan Rouhani, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.


Belgrade, once the capital of Yugoslavia, is hosting the summit again as part of the 60th anniversary of the Non-Aligned Movement, which now includes more than 100 countries. The summit, attended by Turkey's Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu as the guest of honor, brings together representatives of 105 countries and 9 international organizations.


The two-day summit is considered a high-participation event that is taking place despite the coronavirus pandemic in Europe. The last summit was held in the capital Baku in 2019, hosted by Azerbaijan, which was included in the Non-Aligned Movement in 2011 and is the current secretary-general.